The Day of the Constitution of Ukraine is celebrated annually on June 28. It is not marked with pomp: fireworks, large-scale festivity, or march (anyway, it is hard to hold amid Covid-19 pandemic).
Despite the fact that this holiday might be considered as one of the most important in the country, it is one of the most underrated.
The issue is about the Constitution. The meaning that it has for the country. Especially, if it is executed.
What the Constitution is?
It seems to be a common and easy question. However, sometimes, it poses difficulties. So, it won’t be enough to speak out the main points.
The Constitution of Ukraine is the supreme normative legal act of Ukraine.
Talking about the common terms, the Constitution is:
The main law of the state, the special normative legal act, which has the highest legal force.
The Constitution determines the basis of the political, legal and economic system of the state. It is the constituent instrument of the state, which includes the main goals of its creation.
The legal designation: the normative legal act of the highest legal force of the state (or state territorial commonwealth in the international associations), which enshrines the basis of the political, legal and economic system of this state or commonwealth, basis of the legal status of the state or personality, their rights and responsibilities.
To put it simply, it is the main law of the state, which contains the main rules according to which:
- The state should function
- Its citizens should live
How and when the Constitution of Ukraine was adopted
First, the Constitutional Treaty was concluded.
On June 8, 1995, it was signed by President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma and Head of the Verkhovna Rada Oleksandr Moroz.
It consisted of 61 articles and functioned until the adoption of the Constitution.
The current Constitution of Ukraine was adopted on June 28, 1996, during the fifth session of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine of II convocation.
The law of Ukraine #254/96-VR, which ratifies the new Constitution and annuls the previous Constitution of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Constitutional Treaty, was officially signed a bit earlier in the mid-June 1996.
The Constitutional night is the night of June 27 on June 28, when the Verkhovna Rada adopted the Constitution.
The work on the main document of the country lasted 23 hours. Finally, 315 MPs voted for the adoption of the Constitution.
The Day of the Constitution is the only public holiday spelled out in the Constitution.
The day before the holiday
Usually, issue-related opinion polls are held. According to Interfax-Ukraine, one of these polls showed that only 15% of the Ukrainians know the Constitution well.
Meanwhile, 81.6% of polled believe that it is obligatory to know the Constitution.
We remind you why you need to knot it. At least, the Constitution contains the main rights of each Ukrainian.
What rights of the Ukrainians spelled out in the Constitution?
There are a few categories of them.
- Right for the free development of personality (Article 23)
- The inherent right to life (Article 27)
- Right for the respect of human dignity (Article 28)
- Right for freedom and personal integrity (Article 29)
- Right for the sanctity of the home (Article 30)
- Right for the privacy of correspondence, phone talks, telegraphic and other correspondence (Article 31)
- Right for noninterference in private and family life (Article 32)
- Right for freedom of movement and free choice of the place of residence (Article 33)
- Right for freedom of thought and speech (Article 34)
- Right for freedom of world view and religious confession (Article 35)
- The right to unite in the political parties and non-governmental organizations (Article 36)
- The right to participate in the management of the public affairs, in all-Ukrainian and local referendums, to freely elect and be elected to the bodies of the public power or bodies of the local self-government (Article 38)
- The right for peaceful gatherings, protests (Article 39)
- The right to appeal to the bodies of the public power, bodies of the local self-government and their officials (Article 40)
Economic, social and cultural
- The right of every person to own, use and manage the property, results of intellectual or creative activity (Article 41)
- The right for entrepreneurship (Article 42)
- The right for employment (Article 43)
- The right to strike to protect economic and social interests (Article 44)
- The right for rest (Article 45)
- The right social protection (Article 46)
- The right for accommodation (Article 47)
- The right for a sufficient standard of living for a person and his/her family (Article 48)
- The right for health-care (Article 49)
- The right for the environment safe for life and health (Article 50)
- The right resulting from the provision of the free consent for marriage and protection of maternity, paternity, childhood and family (Article 51, 52)
- The right for education (Article 53)
- The right for freedom for creativity and results of intellectual activity (Article 54)
- The right for the legal protection of rights and freedoms by a citizen and the right to appeal to protect rights to the Commission of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on human rights and after use of all national tools of the legal protection to appeal for the protection of rights and freedoms to proper international judicial institutions or proper bodies of the international organization, in which Ukraine has a membership (Article 55)
- The right for compensation for the material and moral loss inflicted by illegal actions or inaction of the bodies of the public authority or particular officials (Article 56)
- The right to get legal aid (Article 59)
- The right not to fulfill the illegal orders or regulations (Article 60)
- The presumption of innocence (Article 62)
- The right to refuse to testify or explain toward yourself or close relatives (Article 63)