In early October, Ukraine’s chief sanitary doctor Viktor Lyashko said that mass vaccination against the Covid-19 coronavirus in the country would begin no earlier than May 2021. He also noted that vaccines should appear earlier.
The WHO states that vaccination against Covid-19 will begin in mid-2021. It clarified that at the beginning of 2021, data from the third phase of clinical trials of vaccines, which are currently being developed, are expected, and only after that decisions regarding vaccinations will be made.
In fact, as of early December 2020, there is two good news on Covid-19: 1) The approximate timing of vaccination is already known. 2) Leaders in vaccine development are already known. They are already completing the last clinical trials, preparing for the imminent delivery of the vaccine, and even managed to name its future price.
So, what is currently known about the leaders of the "vaccine race."
Vaccine from Pfizer and BIONtech
American pharmaceutical company Pfizer and the German BIONTech filed an application with the US Department of Health's medical regulator for urgent registration of a vaccine against coronavirus ten days ago.
The vaccine is expected to become available in the United States in mid to late December this year. The US Department of Health has already specified that this should happen before December 25.
The vaccine is called BNT162b and has already passed the final phase of clinical trials. The final test results showed that the vaccine was 95% effective.
DW clarifies that about 43,500 people took part in clinical trials of the vaccine, about half of whom received a placebo. Of the 170 Covid-19 cases among the participants, only 8 are among those who received the vaccine.
In the US, the vaccine might be available by Christmas. Overall, it is expected that Pfizer will be able to produce 50 million doses of the vaccine by the end of 2020 and about 1.3 billion doses by the end of 2021.
The collection of definitive safety and efficacy data is still ongoing. Also, this vaccine has a prerequisite - storage and transport in containers at temperatures below -70 ºC, which can significantly complicate logistics and distribution.
According to sources from Reuters, the approximate price of one dose of vaccine for the EU will be $ 18.34. The company said that the price will be lower than the market price and will be set depending on the region.
On Friday, November 29, according to sources in The Wall Street Journal, the vaccine, which has not yet been certified, began shipping around the world.
This is to quickly distribute the vaccine if approved.
Vaccine from Moderna
American biotech company Moderna has also applied for emergency vaccine registration in the United States.
The vaccine is called mRNA-1273. Moderna says it was 94.1% effective in the primary analysis and 100% in severe cases.
More than 30,000 volunteers participated in clinical trials of the vaccine. Of these, 196 people became infected with the coronavirus – these are 185 volunteers who received a placebo, and 11 people who received the vaccine.
Moderna promises to start mass production of its vaccine as early as mid-December. By the end of the year, the company plans to produce 20 million doses of the drug.
Moderna said a single dose of the coronavirus vaccine will cost between $ 25 and $ 37.
Unlike Pfizer's vaccine, the Moderna vaccine can be stored in a regular refrigerator.
Sputnik V vaccine
Sputnik V is a two-component vector vaccine against Covid-19, developed jointly by the Russian Federal State Budgetary Institution NITsEM named after N.F. Gamaleya of the Ministry of Health of Russia and the Federal State Budgetary Institution of the 48th Central Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense of Russia and undergoing clinical trials.
According to the developers of the drug, the effectiveness of the vaccine on the 42nd day after the first injection exceeded 95%.
"The second interim analysis of clinical trial data showed the effectiveness of the Sputnik V vaccine at 91.4% on the 28th day after the first dose, 42 days after the first dose, the effectiveness of the vaccine is more than 95%," the statement said.
WHO said it will add Sputnik V to the list of recommended vaccines for emergency use if the drug meets the mandatory criteria.
Sputnik V is already being supplied to other countries. Thus, the first EU country, Hungary, expressed interest in using the Russian vaccine.
Earlier, Israel ordered 1.5 million doses of Sputnik V vaccine.
Belarus plans to start production of the Russian vaccine this year.
The cost of the Russian vaccine for international markets from February 2021 will be less than $ 10 per dose, which is less than $ 20 for the two doses required for vaccination.
"Thus, Sputnik V will be two or more times cheaper than foreign vaccines developed on the basis of mRNA technology, with similar efficiency indicators," the RDIF said.
Applications for the purchase of over 1.2 billion doses of Sputnik V vaccine were received from more than 50 countries, Rossiyskaya Gazeta writes.
The vaccine is called AZD1222. It is produced by the University of Oxford in cooperation with AstraZeneca. In clinical trials, the vaccine has shown an average disease control efficacy of 70%.
Clinical trials of the AZD1222 vaccine were carried out in the UK and Brazil. More than 20 thousand volunteers took part in the tests.
The creators of the Russian Sputnik V vaccine suggested AstraZeneca combine the drugs.
Earlier, AstraZeneca CEO Pascal Soriot said the company is likely to conduct another clinical trial of its coronavirus vaccine to more accurately assess its effectiveness.