Those deemed ineligible for Rio include Yulia Efimova, a 200m bronze medallist in London, who had a provisional ban lifted by Fina last week.
It said the McLaren Report showed anti-doping rules were "not properly applied" by Russian authorities.
Fina will also now re-test all the samples collected from Russian swimmers at last year's World Championships.
As well as Efimova, Mikhail Dovgalyuk, Natalia Lovtcova, Anastasia Krapivina, Nikita Lobintsev, Vladimir Morozov and Daria Ustinova have all been declared ineligible for next month's Games.
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