Researchers have come to a preliminary conclusion that the "hole" in the planet's magnetic shield appeared due to internal processes in the core.
NASA said the anomaly is affecting satellite communications and on-board computers.
It is known that the Earth's magnetic field protects the planet from solar radiation. The inner belt of the field begins at an altitude of over 600 kilometers above the planet's surface. It is able to contain radiation at a distance not only from the Earth, but also from orbiting satellites. But scientists say this defense shield is unusually weak at the site of the anomaly.
In addition, the area of the South Atlantic anomaly has recently been expanding to the west, and its protective function continues to weaken.
The phenomenon could be caused by the tilt of the Earth's magnetic axis and the flow of molten metals inside its outer core. Since the motion in the core changes due to the complex geodynamic conditions in the middle of the core and on the border with solid matter, the magnetic field also moves in space and time.
These dynamic processes propagate outward, affecting the magnetic field around the planet, they can create anomalies in it and cause magnetic pole drift.