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Global review of Covid-19 vaccines: Clinical trials, prices, and side effects

Author : Polina Davydova

Source : 112 Ukraine

Let's consider the developed vaccines, which countries have already begun to vaccinate their population and how much the vaccine costs
23:15, 23 December 2020

Open source

Humanity was able to invent a vaccine against coronavirus in less than a year. On the way to the desired vaccination, you will have to face many difficulties: the formation of immunity in one person requires two doses of the vaccine and one month of time, the cost will be high taking into account the entire population of the country, to which you need to add an extremely complex logistic operation (super cold boxes - refrigerators for 6-10 thousand dollars, some vaccines can be taken out of the refrigerator no more than 4 times).

WHO experts said they would consider any vaccine more than 70% effective, but some vaccines are now showing 95%.

Pfizer / BioNTech

This is a joint development of two pharmaceutical companies: American Pfizer and German BioNTech. It is planned to produce 50 million doses in 2020 and 1.3 billion in 2021, Bloomberg reports.

How it works: An mRNA-type vaccine contains a fragment of the virus's genetic code.

How many doses are required to develop immunity: two.

Storage temperature: super cold, at least -70 degrees Celsius. You can take it out of this cold environment no more than four times.

Efficiency: 95%.

Price: $ 20.

Side effects: Vaccine manufacturers indicate in a patient information leaflet that it should not be given to people with a proven allergy to any of the substances in the vaccine.

Two workers in the UK's National Health System (NHS) complained of an allergy to the Pfizer vaccine (both people are allergic).

In Alaska, two health workers developed allergies after being vaccinated against the coronavirus with Pfizer's vaccine. A middle-aged woman with no history of allergy tendencies developed an anaphylactic reaction 10 minutes after vaccination, a rash on the face and body, shortness of breath and an increased heart rate. The second paramedic had swollen eyes, dizziness and a sore throat.

Moderna

The American Moderna Inc expects to supply 20 million doses to the United States in December and 100 million - worldwide in the first quarter.

How it works: RNA (part of the genetic code of the virus). Its essence is to induce the human body to produce proteins that are similar to the proteins of the virus and cause an immune response.

How many doses are required to develop immunity: two.

Storage temperature: -20 degrees, up to 6 months.

Efficiency: 95%.

Price: $ 33.

Side effects: Less than 2% of those vaccinated with the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines had a fever of 39-40 degrees. A number of subjects showed fatigue, chills, headaches, and muscle pains.

AstraZeneca / Oxford

The British-Swedish concern AstraZeneca, a partner at Oxford University, has closed deals for 3 billion doses even before the results of research at later stages are available. Initial clinical results were mixed.

How it works: Viral vector (genetically modified virus).

How many doses are required to develop immunity: two.

Storage temperature: normal temperature in the refrigerator (+2 to +8).

Efficiency: 70%.

Price: $ 4.

Side effects: The coronavirus vaccine is still being tested. There were no cases of hospitalization or severe illness in the vaccination groups.

Novavax

This small American biotech firm has never put a product on the market. It received more than $ 1.6 billion from the United States to develop a vaccine and $ 399 million from the Epidemic Preparedness Coalition. Research is ongoing.

How it works: Vaccine contains S-protein of the coronavirus. Also, a special adjuvant is used, which plays an important role in stimulating the immune response. The viral protein for the vaccine is produced in insect cells - namely, cornworm.

How many doses are required to develop immunity: two.

Storage temperature: normal temperature in the refrigerator (+2 to +8)

Effectiveness: The third phase of research began at the end of August, its results are not yet known, they can be expected by the beginning of 2021.

Price: $ 3.

Johnson & Johnson

American company Johnson & Johnson, which includes Belgian Janssen Pharmaceutic, is one of the leading candidates due to the ratio of ease of vaccine conservation. In case of successful completion of the III phase of trials, it will be available in the second half of 2021.

How it works: a vector vaccine based on human adenovirus type 26 (Ad26.COV2.S).

How many doses are required to develop immunity: one.

Storage temperature: normal temperature in the refrigerator (+2 to +8).

Effectiveness: There is no news on effectiveness studies yet.

Price: about $ 10.

Side effects: Not yet known.

Sinovac Biotech

The Chinese vaccine Sinovac has not yet passed the third phase of clinical trials. Sinovac will be able to produce 300 million doses per year at a newly built 20 thousand square meter plant.

How it works: Triggers an immune response using the Covid-19 virus itself after it has been chemically inactivated. The level of antibodies produced by it is much lower than that of people who have had coronavirus.

How many doses are required to develop immunity: two.

Storage temperature: normal temperature in the refrigerator (+2 to +8).

Efficiency: The Indonesian company BioFarma, based on intermediate data, estimated the effectiveness of the drug at 97%.

Price: about $ 30.

Gamaleya Center ("Sputnik V" trade mark)

Russian vaccine, which should create immunity for more than two years.

How it works: a vaccine based on human adenovirus, which acts as a vector (carrier of the genetic information of the coronavirus). Based on this information, the cells produce S-protein, which triggers an immune response.

How many doses are required to develop immunity: two.

Storage temperature: normal temperature in the refrigerator (+2 to +8) dry.

Efficiency: 92%.

Price: $ 10.

Side effects: the creators of the Russian "Sputnik V" talk about side effects in the form of fever, malaise, headache, which disappeared within a few days.

CanSino Biologics

Another Chinese vaccine is being tested in Russia, Saudi Arabia, Mexico and Pakistan. CanSino was approved for the Chinese military even before later trials began.

How it works: A single-component human adenovirus type 5 vaccine. Carries the naturally occurring S-protein variant.

How many doses are required to develop immunity: one.

Storage temperature: normal temperature in the refrigerator (+2 to +8).

Effectiveness: The third phase of vaccine trials began in August, and the company has yet to report on effectiveness.

Side effects: In a Phase I study, it was found that people aged 45-60 develop fewer antibodies. At least one side effect was found in 81% of the subjects. Among them - headache, fatigue, muscle pain.

Where vaccination has already begun?

More than 1.1 million people have been vaccinated against Covid-19 in four countries. Russia and China were the first to vaccinate the population even before the completion of the tests. As reported by Bloomberg, Russia has vaccinated 320 thousand people, China - 650 thousand.

The UK has begun vaccination with the first Pfizer vaccine in Europe and has already vaccinated 137,000 citizens.

The US is also not lagging behind and began vaccinations this week with health workers. Already 24 states have reported the use of 49,567 doses.

In Canada, hospitals received their first doses of vaccines and began to vaccinate the most vulnerable. In total, the country has purchased more than 400 million doses of vaccine from several manufacturers. Once approved by the Ministry of Health, vaccines will be made available to Canadians on a rolling basis. In most regions, priority is given to health workers and those living in nursing homes.

In the European Union, mass vaccination has so far been postponed due to the official procedure. First you need to get approval from the European Medical Association (EMA), it should be already next week. According to preliminary data, vaccinations will begin on December 27-29.

Plans and waiting list for vaccinations in Ukraine

So far, there is no vaccine in Ukraine. According to various sources, it will be delivered in early or summer 2021 under the COVAX program, the name of the developer company is also a mystery. At the same time, the Ministry of Health has already developed a plan for mass vaccination.

The head of the department, Maxym Stepanov, said that "we calculated every step in further actions so that all citizens have access to the vaccine, and the vaccination proceeds according to plan."

Vaccinations will take turns, it will be formed by priority. Approximately 21 million people at risk need priority vaccination. They plan to carry out about 190 thousand vaccinations per week.

First of all, vaccinations will be given to medical workers, military personnel, police officers, employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, social workers, persons in institutions providing long-term care and support, persons over 60 years old.

The "pitfalls" are in the logistics in the Ukrainian realities. The fact is that most of these vaccines require super cold. Pfizer / BioNTech should be stored at a temperature of at least -70 ° C in a special refrigerator box. You can remove it from a cold environment no more than four times.

Regarding the possibility of the cold chain for storing vaccines with storage requirements from -60 ° C to -80 ° C, Stepanov said that in addition to state-owned enterprises, private companies will be involved.

BBC News Ukraine, citing the Center for Public Health, reports that now in Ukraine there are enough refrigerators to store almost 12 million doses of vaccines at temperatures from +2 to +8 degrees.

Related: France ready to assist Ukraine with vaccine against Covid-19, - Zelensky

Related: AstraZeneca states its vaccine efficient against new Covid-19 strain

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