This year's Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded to novelist Abdulrazak Gurnah (Tanzania).
He was noted for “his uncompromising and compassionate penetration of the effects of colonialism and the fate of the refugee in the gulf between cultures and continents."
Earlier, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian “for their discoveries of receptors for temperature and touch.” Their work sheds light on how to reduce chronic and acute pain associated with a range of diseases, trauma and their treatments. Besides, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann, and Giorgio Parisi for groundbreaking contributions to our understanding of complex physical systems”. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Benjamin List (Germany) and David W.C. MacMillan (the US) "for the development of asymmetric organocatalysis".
Last year, the Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded to American poet Louise Glück for “her unmistakable poetic voice that with austere beauty makes individual existence universal”.