Unfortunately, children commit serious crimes more often than we would like to see. Literally last week in the Kharkiv region a 6-year-old girl was killed; a 13-year-old boy is suspected of her murder. The police quickly identified the killer, and now the teenager will be held responsible for what he did. But he will not serve 15 years in a colony (this is the punishment provided for by the Criminal Code of Ukraine for murderers) a special correctional institution for children awaits him. Let's figure out why and what kind of institution it is.
Age of criminal responsibility
In Ukraine, the Criminal Code defines the age of criminal prosecution (Article 22 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine), and it starts at the age of 14 for serious crimes such as rape and murder, and at the age of 16 for all other, less serious crimes.
The limitation of the minimum age from which criminal liability can occur, 14-16 years old, is due to the fact that at this age a teenager is formed as a person, there is a transition from childhood to adulthood. It is from this age that a person is able to adequately assess his behavior.
If a child has committed a serious crime between the ages of 11 and 14, the court, when deciding on his punishment, is guided by the law "On Bodies and Services for Children and Special Institutions for Children." And in this case, for the duration of the investigation, the child will be sent to a reception center, and for re-education - to a general education school of social rehabilitation for a period of no more than three years.
Social Rehabilitation Schools
General education schools of social rehabilitation are special educational institutions for children who need special conditions of upbringing. Children who have committed criminal offenses under the age of 18 or offenders before they reach the age of criminal responsibility are referred here.
Among the tasks of these institutions are "to ensure the social rehabilitation of students, their legal education and social protection in a constant pedagogical regime."
In such schools, children can be kept until they reach the age of 15. If by this age the students have not taken the path of correction, by a court decision, they can be sent to a vocational school of social rehabilitation. There, teenagers are kept up to a maximum of 19 years old.
Students can be released from such institutions ahead of schedule or upon the expiration of a court-defined period. From schools, children are sent to their parents or guardians, and from vocational schools, they are sent to work in their specialty.
How children are re-educated in social rehabilitation schools
In such schools, a special pedagogical regime has been established, children are under constant supervision and control of teachers. Pupils are not allowed to freely leave the school grounds without being accompanied by authorized persons.
In schools of social rehabilitation, children are engaged in general education subjects, but teachers reeducate students mainly through socially useful labor (labor training). Such training takes place in training and production workshops, agriculture or gardening of the school under the constant supervision of teachers.
School teachers keep in touch with the parents of the students. Also, parents, by decision of the school administration, can visit students. Children are not prohibited from using the Internet, they have the right to correspondence. At the same time, the school administration can inspect the student and his belongings in order to prevent the storage of prohibited items and substances.
In these schools, children are supported by the state budget.