Fighting between the Taliban and Afghan government forces has increased over the past two months as international troops pull out of the country. The militant group is thought to have captured up to half of all territory.
It has moved swiftly in the wake of the US withdrawal, retaking border crossings and other land in rural areas.
The interior ministry said the new curfew was "to curb violence and limit the Taliban movements", adding that Kabul, Panjshir and Nangarhar were exempt.
As the Taliban continues to advance, fierce clashes have taken place this week outside the city of Kandahar.
In response, the US launched airstrikes against militants in the area on Thursday. But with US operations in Afghanistan officially ending on 31 August, there are concerns about the months ahead.
US-led forces ousted the Taliban from power in Afghanistan in October 2001. The group had been harbouring Osama Bin Laden and other figures linked to the 11 September attacks on the US.
President Biden has said the American pull-out is justified as US forces have made sure Afghanistan cannot again become a base for foreign jihadists to plot against the West.