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Ukrainian and Russian propaganda often accuse each other of fascism. We regularly declare that Russian fascists participate in the war in Donbas, and the Russians go even further and declare that in Ukraine, the Nazis have come to power. Looking at each other under the Nazi point of view has become the accepted norm.
So is there any fascism in Ukraine and Russia?
The issue of fascism definition is quite confusing, and we have usually associated it with Hitler's nazism and genocide. Therefore, both we and Russians willingly paste that label to each other, when we want to show each other as inhumane people.
Fascism - is a religion of the state. It is such an ideology that says that all the problems of society and person will be solved by the all-powerful state. To do this, the whole nation must unite in order to build such a super-state. Fascism reduces the private life and private business to minimum.
Fascism says that in such a state there can be no pluralism, no internal political struggle, there can be no classes, no political parties, except the Nazi one. Any elections and democracy are canceled as a bourgeois chimera, and the whole nation is united around its leader (the Fuhrer, Duce, the general secretary, the father of the peoples, a leader of Jamahiriya, etc.), which embodies and implements the will of the whole nation.
Thus, the basic concepts of fascism are- a leader, a total state, a nation. Therefore, if in our society the thesis "Nation above all", "Glory to the nation," etc. begins to prevail, it will mean a shift in the direction of fascist consciousness.
Immediately after the victory of the Maidan such thing was observed in our society, but it did not take root, mainly because Petro Poroshenko headed the country - the usual oligarch, not the fascist type leader.
Fascism is deeply hostile to the democracy, liberalism and individualism. Democracy - it is the primacy of human rights over the rights of states. A democratic society creates a state to protect its rights. With fascism things are just the opposite - human rights are canceled. There is only one right - to serve to the all-powerful state and its leader. The concept of identity and sacred private property becomes abolished. Everything belongs to the monster - the State, any dissent is punishable.
As a consequence of all this, fascism is being built strictly according to the laws of a rigid hierarchy. Leader - the highest elite - the lowest elite - etc.
The entire economy is subjected to the public interest, there is practically no market. The basis for all becomes a state planning and state orders. The State guarantees full employment and pursue parasites. The entire economy is starting to work as a large corporation. Hence the famous fascist corporatism.
In times of fascism class division of society is canceled and replaced by the solidarity of all people, regardless of financial status. Solidarity around the idea of a common and powerful nation state.
Therefore, when Tymoshenko one time called for solidarity between rich and poor – she showed all the elements of fascism. People noticed that she is generally inclined to it and would gladly have played the role of the Duce. But can’t receive it.
Solidarity education begins at school. Pioneers, scouts - are all examples of fascistization of children’s consciousness. It brings up the idea of self-sacrifice for the sake of the nation, and the leader of the state. Country starts to cultivate an image of a warrior, not a soldier.
By the way, the first example of children’s fascism was given in the US, where in 1892 the compulsory daily oath to American flag with a gesture with the hand down were introduced in schools. The Italians and Germans adopted it all from Americans later. US in general became the first fascist state in the period of the First World War during Wilson's presidency, but managed to get out of this.
Fascism, as a rule, quickly leads to the concept of an enemy of nation. It could be anyone. This process is quite incidental, to whom authorities point out, will become the enemy. The enemy can be external and internal. Fascism can fall into ethnically based nationalism, but not necessarily. For instance, in fascist Italy there was no division on ethnic grounds, anyone could be a member of the nation. There were many Jews, for example, in the fascist party. But in 1943 Hitler came to Italy, and that was the difficult time for Jews.
And fascism in Germany was so powerful in searching the enemy, that they came to the genocide. In the USSR, the communist fascism killed, according to various estimates, up to 40 million people. In fascist Spain and Portugal there was no nationalism, but there were repression for dissent.
Fascist type of economy inevitably leads to militarization. Because ensuring the full employment is much easier by military orders. But if you have a lot of weapons, and there are still enemies of the nation, the war is almost inevitable.
Also fascism is characterized by permanent national programs to improve the nation: government programs to improve health, nutrition and total sport. For example, Hitler at one time was seriously going to convert the whole of Germany to vegetarianism.
So is there any fascism in Ukraine and Russia in view of the described?
At the state level, of course not. Not now. But there are some indications. And in Russia, we can notice perhaps more of them. There is a strong leader, the state dominates in the economy, its contribution to GDP has already reached 70%, they have defense consciousness, aggression and militarism, the cult of the state among Russians is higher than among Ukrainians.
In Ukraine, there are no strong leaders at all. Well, could Poroshenko become a new Mussolini with his 7% rating? Ukrainian state is collapsed and refuses to carry out its functions, Ukrainians do not rely on it and leave the country in search of better lives.
At some level, fascist ideas, of course, are present in both countries, but they exist in all European countries. Here and there marginal leaders begin to popping up. They offer recipes of national salvation from migrants through building a strong state, solidarity, etc. Of course, they immediately indicate enemies, and nation will need to deal with them on the way to happiness.
However, Ukraine and Russia have a definite chance to fall in natural fascism. Still, both countries for a long time stayed in one of his creepy species - communism, and recurrences of faith in an omnipotent state and leader of the nation may well happen again.
Ukraine, which economy has collapsed, has more of such chances. At some point, the impoverished and desperate people may become disappointed in that they could change anything for the better in a democratic way through elections, and then the public will start to look for the leader - savior. And will find him.
No wonder many Ukrainian citizens seriously believe that only a Ukrainian Bonaparte can save the country, who in one fell swoop could take away all these bad politicians and enemies ... And so on. If that happens, it will be an immediate end to Ukraine's in its current borders.