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In 2014, a month after the so-called "referendum" in Crimea, Russian President Vladimir Putin expressed his hope that the fact of the peninsula "joining" would be included into a school textbook of Russian history. Three years have passed, and in 2017, the events of recent years, including the illegal annexation of Crimea, began to appear in the Russian school curriculum. But, as it turned out, this issue became very provocative even in the textbook for the 10th grade. That is why, in October, the Federation Council sounded the alarm. Today it became known that the Ministry of Education and Science of the country sent a textbook for additional examination to the Russian Academy of Sciences. There they must check for the "legal, political, and civil" correctness of describing the "joining" of the Crimean Peninsula to Russia description till January 27. Let us try to figure out what is so alarming for the Federation Council, in fact, how the development of events in Ukraine during the occupation of Crimea is described in the Russian textbook of modern history.
First of all, we note that we are talking about a textbook for the 10th graders "The History of Russia: Beginning of XX - Beginning of the XXI Century" by Oleg Volobuev, Sergei Karpachev, and Petr Romanov, published by the publishing house "DROFA" in 2015; 363 pages.
The textbook passed pedagogical, public and historical cultural examination in 2016 and was approved by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation for use in schools.
The first comments on this history textbook in Russia appeared in October 2017 after the speech of Senator Sergei Tsekov from Crimea at the plenary meeting of the Federation Council. In particular, he quoted to his colleagues’ (Volobuev, Karpachev, and Romanov) textbook on the development of events in Ukraine in 2014: "The revolution that began in Kyiv became a phenomenon of international politics and splashed the Crimean peninsula that swam in the other direction on a revolutionary wave."
"For me, as a participant in the reunion of the Crimea with Russia, such an assessment is puzzling, if not indignant. How can a bloody putsch in Kyiv be called a revolution, as suggested in this textbook?" said the senator.
After hearing the senator, chairman of the Upper Chamber of the Federation Council Valentina Matvienko stressed that such a presentation was very "provocative," and instructed the committee on education and science to specifically study sections of history textbooks on the accession of Crimea.
That is, the main fault of the authors of the textbook is that they wrote the word "revolution", accordingly they deceived schoolchildren and influenced their correct understanding of historical events.
Great attention to Ukrainian issues, including the annexation of Crimea and loss of control over part of the Donetsk and Luhansk regions, is given in the textbook in the fifth (final) section "The Russian Federation in 1992-2014."
The first chapter enthusiastically describes the beginning of reforms in Russia and the stabilization of the state after the collapse of the Soviet Union: Moscow has been confidently going to its greatness at the beginning of the XXI century.
In the second chapter, devoted to the power and society in 2000-2014, we are already observing a map of the Russian Federation, which includes the annexed Crimean peninsula.
Then the biggest chapter, about foreign policy in that period, comes. The "colorful revolutions" that occurred in Georgia and Ukraine, as well as the "tulip revolution" of 2005 in Kyrgyzstan, are described here.
So, we read: "The Orange Revolution", in fact, was not a revolution. During Yushchenko's presidency, the degree of nationalism increased, Yushchenko strengthened the political and ideological pressure on the Russian-speaking population. One of the major ideological campaigns was conducted under the banner of the Holodomor. The Holodomor began to be interpreted as a genocide against the Ukrainian people."
The last block in the chapter, devoted to the events occurred at the end of 2013-2014 in Ukraine, provokes this bewilderment. "Yanukovych (under threat to his life) secretly left Kyiv and soon had to take refuge in Russia. A new government was illegally formed in Kyiv," the authors of the textbook state.
At the same time, in their opinion, the annexation of Crimea by Russia was a response to the "unconstitutional coup" in Kyiv. The Russian military took part in the events on the peninsula, but they "did not interfere in anything", and the Russian Federation only "assumed the preservation of peace on the peninsula."
It also emphasizes that the United States and the European Union did not recognize the "reunification of Crimea with Russia," ignoring the opinion of the Crimeans. The anti-terrorist operation carried out by the Ukrainian government in certain regions of Donetsk and Luhansk regions is called "punitive", and it is unreasonable to accuse Russia of aggression.