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Canada has included Ukraine to the Automatic Firearms Country Control List. The Export and Import Permits Act places very strict controls on the export of prohibited firearms, prohibited weapons and prohibited devices (as defined in the Criminal Code of Canada). Export permit applications for these items are only considered to countries on the Automatic Firearms Country Control List (AFCCL).
This decision caused a controversial assessment from various media: some came out with headlines that Canada "allowed to supply Ukraine with lethal weapons," others limited the wording "removed the restriction" and "entered the list of countries that are allowed to deliver."
What is AFCCL? As the Canadian government's official magazine explains, the AFCCL is an additional export control measure that is unique to Canada.
Inclusion on the AFCCL does not guarantee the approval of exports of prohibited firearms, prohibited weapons and prohibited devices. As usual, an export permit issued by Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada must be obtained in order to lawfully export these items from Canada. All applications to export controlled items are rigorously evaluated on a case-by-case basis and the exportation of these items is limited only to consignees that are government or authorized by government.
At the moment, the list includes 40 countries. Basically, these are NATO members, as well as Botswana, Chile, Colombia, and others. The inclusion of a country in the AFCCL does not mean automatic authorization for the delivery of lethal weapons. It only implies the possibility of supplying weapons. Canadian exporters are able to apply for permits for the export of "prohibited weapons and devices" from Canada to the specified country.
Export should be pre-authorized by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Canada.
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Canada Chrystia Freeland
Applications for export permits are considered on a case-by-case basis. That is, each case is considered separately and the decision is made specifically on it, but not on the whole. So, does it mean that Ukraine cannot get weapons from Canada? It is unlikely. Judging from the decision and individual comments, Canada is very determined.
In particular, James Bezan, Canadian MP (Conservative Party), who, among other things, occupies the post of Minister of National Defense in the "shadow" government of the country, recalled Javelins, for example.
James Bezan, MP
Javelin is an American man-portable fire-and-forget anti-tank missile fielded to replace the M47 Dragon anti-tank missile in US service. It uses an automatic infrared guidance that allows the user to seek cover immediately after launch, as opposed to wired guided systems, like the Dragon, where the user has to actively guide the weapon throughout the engagement.
"Following this government resolution, Canada can sell or transfer Javelins to Ukraine," Bezan said in his interview with Voice of America.
So what kind of weapons can Ukraine generally get?
According to the Canadian government magazine, it is about items falling under the Canadian ECL Group 2 (Export Control List). These are fully automatic firearms, electric weapons (shockers) and large-capacity weapon stores. In addition, group 2 (ammunition) includes: guns of a certain caliber, guns, mortars, anti-tank guns, bombs, torpedoes, rockets, various vehicles, UAVs, armored and protective equipment, explosives, software and technologies, etc. .
That is, the broadest possible list, allowing to create a field for maneuver both in terms of providing Ukraine with weapons, and in terms of examining applications by the Canadian government.
That is, Bezan recalled Javelins as one of the examples that Canada would soon be able to sell or transfer to Ukraine not accidentally.
Canada's decision to include Ukraine in the AFCCL could become a breakthrough in Ukraine's military support, and do not greatly improve the situation.
Despite the fact that Ukraine has appeared on this list, it is emphasized that the decision on each case of arms exports will be separately accepted and considered. Therefore, we would not advise to hurry with the headlines "Canada allowed to deliver lethal weapons to Ukraine" and so on.
Volodymyr Groysman and Justin Trudeau
Canada has lifted restrictions on the sale of firearms to Ukraine, and let see what will happen next.