On the Day of Remembrance of the Holocaust and heroism of European Jews (Yom HaShoah) people honor the memory of six million Jews killed by the Nazis and their collaborators during World War II. They remember the heroism of the Jews that rose in revolt in the Warsaw ghetto. National Memorial Day is celebrated annually on the 27th day of the Hebrew month of Nisan. In 2016 it is May 5th.
The uprising in the Warsaw ghetto has become a symbol of Jewish resistance. During the five weeks, ghetto defenders heroically resisted the superior forces of the German military, who with artillery and armored vehicles began the systematic destruction of the ghetto and the destruction of its inhabitants. Liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto began April 19, 1943 (27 Nisan in the Hebrew calendar) and ended on 16 May.
First Day of Remembrance of the disaster and heroism had to be designated as a day of uprising, but this date is the start date of the Jewish Passover holiday, which is not suitable for the national Remembrance Day. Therefore, Remembrance Day was appointed on 27 Nisan - the sixth day after the Easter holiday. A week after this date Israel celebrates Independence Day. The proximity in time for Independence Day symbolically expresses the historical transition of the Jewish people during the Holocaust to the Renaissance.
Day of Remembrance of the Holocaust and heroism of European Jewry begins with a sunset and ends at the next day with the appearance of the stars. Ceremonies and meetings are held in the memory of that day, flags fly at half-staff, TV and radio channels broadcast shows about European Jews during the Second World War, about the heroism of the victims, about their heritage.
Memorial Day celebrations start at 20:00 the public rally at the Warsaw Ghetto Square in the National Memorial Yad Vashem. The meeting, attended by Holocaust survivors and their families, is carried out together with the President and the Prime Minister. People who survived the catastrophe and their relatives (second and third generations) lit six torches in memory of the six million victims. The next day at 10 AM the sirens are heard across the country, after which two minutes of silence come. After two minutes of silence, a ceremony of laying wreaths at the memorial dedicated to the uprising in the Warsaw ghetto takes place at Yad Vashem.
Since 1988 and every year on that day, "Procession of Life" is held, and people come from the Auschwitz death camp to the Birkenau death camp. The march was organized to preserve the memory of the Holocaust and its victims for the younger generation. The name "Procession of Life" appeared in opposition to the name of "Death march" - procession of escorted Jewish prisoners, who had to pass through the long distances for the period of the Second World War, during which most of the prisoners died in the harsh conditions or were killed by Nazi guards.
Auschwitz was the largest camp, founded by the Germans. It was a complex of concentration camps, death camps and forced labor camps, located near the Polish city of Krakow. Camp complex consisted of three large camps: Auschwitz I, Auschwitz II (Birkenau), and Auschwitz III (Monowitz). Over a million people were killed in Auschwitz, nine-tenths of them were Jews. Each of the four largest gas chambers housed 2 thousand people. It was barely impossible to escape from Auschwitz. People faced forced labor, violent "medical experiments" on prisoners of war on men, women and children. Most prisoners at Auschwitz could stay alive for only a few weeks or months.
As a result of the Holocaust, about 60% of the Jews of Europe and about a third of the Jewish population of the world were destroyed.
Нацистский врач Карл Клауберг (слева), проводивший медицинские эксперименты на пленных в блоке 10 лагеря Освенцим. Польша, между 1941 и 1944 гг.
Заключенные на принудительных работах по расширению лагеря. Освенцим-Биркенау, Польша, 1942 - 1943 гг.
Бараки в лагере Освенцим-Биркенау. Фотография сделана после освобождения лагеря. Освенцим-Биркенау, Польша, после 29 января 1945 г.
Holocaust (From English holocaust, from the ancient Greek ὁλοκαύστος - "sacrifice") in the narrow sense refers to the mass extermination of Jews living in Germany, on the territory of its allies and the occupied territories during the Second World War; the destruction of European Jewry during the 1933-1945 period, the destruction of the Jewish communities. In a broad sense it is the persecution and mass extermination of different ethnic and social groups during the period of Nazi Germany conducted by the Nazis. Therefore, the Nazis destroyed 10% of Poles (excluding war losses), about 3 million Soviet prisoners of war, thousands of homosexual persons. Total extermination was the fate of the mentally ill and disabled.
The victims of deliberate attempts of complete extermination of the Jewish people in Jerusalem were remembered in 1953, the memorial complex Yad Vashem was founded. Also, a memorial pays tribute to non-Jews who risked life during the Holocaust to save Jews. Law to preserve the memory of the martyrs and heroes awards in Israel honorary title "Hasidé ummot ha-olam" (the righteous people of the world).
The memorial complex Yad Vashem includes an archive, a library, a center for research and publications, the World Centre for teaching the Holocaust, the Department of the Righteous, as well as several museums. On a dark gray mosaic floor of the Hall of Memory, the names of 22 of the largest Nazi concentration camps, death camps and places of mass executions are inscribed. In the center of the room there is an eternal flame, which is located in front of the ashes of victims of the vault collected and brought to Israel from the death camps. Also at Yad Vashem there is an obelisk to soldiers-heroes and children's memorial, dedicated to one and a half million children who perished in those terrible years. The archive and library contain the most complete information on this subject, more than 62 million pages of evidence and about 300 thousand photos are stored here.