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Who is Homo Creativus
American sociologist Richard Florida classifies as creative class those professionals engaged in the creative segment of the economy, workers whose economic function is to make intangible assets that realize in material dividends, new ideas, new technologies and new creative content. The creative class can include journalists, artists, scientists, writers, entrepreneurs, managers, IT industry workers and others. If analyzed, it is the creative class that ensures the production of intellectual "miracles", stimulates and organizes the development of economy and innovative technologies. That is, it supports the modern level of production and services. The creative class has the full benefit of innovative modernization, which today provides the leading positions of economically developed countries.
Representatives of homo creativus are people with creative identity, with a certain level of non-pragmatic life motivations, often with a specific creative model of behavior. They are characterized by the need for self-actualization - realization of their abilities and opportunities, development of their own personality. In the Maslow's hierarchy of needs, this identity takes the highest - the seventh level. Carriers of this psychotype have the ability to think outside the box, take risks, make effective decisions in conditions of uncertainty, perceive creative enlightenments. In other social strata, including the bureaucratic class, as a rule, quite rational behavioral motivation is dominant.
Innovative transformations require new thinking, which is possible only in a motivated, ambitious social group. At the same time, the reform subject should have the appropriate worldview, will, economic and political interest, as well as sufficient resources and opportunities.
Why the "brains" flow out of the country
The existence of creative class is possible only in the presence of a free social space. In a situation where there is no freedom - political freedom, creative freedom, spiritual freedom, freedom of expression, where economic freedom is limited by corruption, the creative class is marginalized, its aggregate potential is reduced, the brain drain starts - the flight of educated people from the country or "internal emigration" . In conditions of post-industrial development, it is the national creative class that is the main generator and source of innovation, it is those people who create the symbolic capital of the nation. In a situation where this group is suppressed, dispersed, marginalized, innovations must be exported from the outside.
According to the International Organization for Migration, 6 million people left Ukraine, which makes about 1/7 of the total population of the country. Of these, 50% are young people under the age of 35 who received higher education, but do not want to work for a meager salary and do not see their future here. Moreover, according to sociological research, more than half of young people aged 18-29 years are ready to leave the country at the first opportunity. It is deplorable that the "brains" of our society go abroad. These are young people who received a good education, and especially those who passed internship in Europe, saw their salaries, social guarantees of Europeans. The country is left by highly qualified biochemists, chemists, physicists, engineers, doctors. In recent years, people with humanitarian education began to leave. Prospects of the "overseas life" are also attractive for young IT specialists.
What to do in order to leave creative people in Ukraine
We live in an era of ideas, creativity, where the creative class has a huge impact on the development of the economy. The example of such companies as Apple, Google, Amazon, Instagram and others, speaks for itself. You do not need to own an oil rig to create a successful business. It is enough to have only an idea and a desire to embody it. But the state plays a big role, because in order to develop, to make their ideas reality, it is necessary to have no monopolies, corrupt officials and other barriers on their way. If Steve Jobs was born and worked in Ukraine, would he be able to create an innovative product? It is this issue – which, in fact, determines the success or failure of the economic model of the state.
That is why, in Ukraine, the necessary social modernization is one of the mandatory functions of a modern state oriented to global competitiveness. Ukrainian society is extremely interested in carrying out modernization, which will involve the maximum number of representatives of active social groups. Innovative modernization is seen as part of a new social contract - between the state and society.
By initiating modernization, the state has to make a series of self-restrictions - first of all, to limit its own monopoly on power. Innovative modernization, carried out with the broad participation of the creative class, presupposes significant adjustments to the entire Ukrainian political system: the main thing is the rejection of the model in which political clans are the only actors in the development, adoption and implementation of decisions. The state needs to limit its influence on business and create conditions for competition.
We need to organize in a new way not only the tax system, but also the educational system. Low wages of educators put them in conditions of survival, rather than development, inspiration, improvement. The fact that today, like many years before, the authorities did not prioritize the development of creative opportunities for children, the development of their thinking and the desire for new achievements, is not just the problems of these children in adulthood. This is a huge problem for Ukraine, which, having a strong and intelligent nation, is losing competitive advantages in the world scene.
In order for our country to become competitive, so that people have a decent standard of living, we need not only economic conditions - conditions for the freedom of thinking are also necessary. We need to develop a creative class, only it can create conditions for real economic growth of the country. Otherwise, Ukraine risks becoming an economic colony of leading states, a consumer, not a manufacturer of innovative products. With all the ensuing consequences - the level of GDP, people's incomes, the quality of life and migration of the younger generation. And we must remember that the new wave of economic development should be a creative way!