Waste management: three chances for Ukraine
Ukraine should increase the rate of collection and recycling and stimulate environmentalizing products, reducing their environmental impact
Read the original text ar Evropeiska Pravda.
Today every citizen is aware of the critical situation of garbage in the country.
Thus, almost all the trash in Ukraine goes the landfill. One of the pressing issues is the obligation of manufacturers to provide processing and recycling of their products.
It is worth mentioning that this is the current law on waste. But in Ukraine still a mechanism for the implementation of the "honorable" duty manufacturers of packaging materials is not developed.
According to official data, Ukraine in 2014 (excluding Crimea, Luhansk oblast and Sevastopol City. Had about 45 million m3 of waste. Overall, 96.4% were disposed to landfill.
For a long time, and order number 915of Cabinet of Ministers operated in Ukraine. This document placed on enterprises the responsibility for disposal of waste of imported packaging. Companies that imported it paid the fee.
Last year, the government reversed it, and it was stated that about liquidation of "monopoly position of state company" in and reducing corruption and administrative burden on business.
However, the alternative variant is not offered.
Three European routes
In the European Union the extended producer responsibility was introduced. This means that the producer is responsible for the processing and disposal of his products after use.
This approach was introduced in the early 1990s in some countries of the European Union - Germany, Sweden, France. Later it was recognized as the best principle and implemented at EU level.
Today, this principle is used in most of the world, it also introduced in Asia and Africa.
The introduction of this model usually has two main objectives: the first is to increase the rate of collection and recycling; second, to shift the financial responsibility of citizens and public authorities and thus stimulate environmentalizing products, reducing their environmental impact.
For example, in Japan the introduction of this mechanism increased by 27% collection and recycling of packaging waste from 1997 to 2000.
There is a practice of association of producers and creating a non-profit organization, which might obtain some funds for disposal of the used products. The organization should be engaged in funds reporting. These models are used in Poland, Austria, France, and Spain.
Another way is to establish a tax for manufacturers, and the funds received from this tax directed state agencies for waste management. Such a system exists in Denmark and Hungary.
The establishment of a combined system is also possible: the manufacturer has the option of either paying the environmental tax or non-profit membership organization. This is possible in Croatia, Estonia, Latvia. However, despite the existence of these models can not exclude independent organization separate manufacturer of collection and recycling.
Ukraine at the crossroad
What should Ukraine introduce? We must adoptat the legislative level of the European Parliament and Council 2008/98 / EC of 19 November 2008 on waste.
This document states that the introduction of extended producer’s responsibility is a mean of supporting the development and manufacture of products that fully takes into account and facilitates the efficient use of resources throughout the life cycle. The report states that the measures for implementing extended producer responsibility may involve acceptance of returned products and waste left after using these products, as well as the subsequent management of waste and financial responsibility for such activities.
It should be noted that the EU result is important, but how to achieve this result, each country may choose itself.
Ukraine can actually choose from three models, or even invent a new one, based on one of the European countries.
Today, the Supreme Council has introduced three bills. They provide the same - legislative regulation of issues related to waste management.
But every bill proposes a method of implementing extended producer responsibility.
Of course, each of these projects contains certain deficiencies and affect the interests of business (producers, processors, providers of services for export, those involved in waste disposal), ordinary citizens, local governments and authorities, and therefore requires a revision to maximum consideration of the interests of all stakeholders.
Each of these proposed models has its pros and cons. But, theoretically, each of them is effective.
You only need to apply the model that would fit in our society, that would be acceptable and effective in our country is in a crisis of trust "all for all", and promote virtuous performance of the duties by all participants of social relations. We must clean our cities of rubbish.
It is possible that soon we will have another bill - last year the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, at least, announced aboutthe development of such a document.
The main thing is that the Verkhovna Rada brought a document which will contain clear definitions and terms specific to the EU countries, introduce a hierarchy of priorities in the field of waste management, order preparation plans for waste management.
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