Infrastructure for electric vehicles: which suits Ukraine?
When a trip to Lviv or Odesa on electric car would not be rare curiosity, this kind of transport might become №1 Ukrainian family car
Read the original text at Ain.ua.
Electric cars are gradually gaining popularity, but there must be the infrastructure to use them across the country. The co-founder of ElectroCars company Oleksander Kravtsov compared the three national models of infrastructure for electric vehicles: American, Chinese, and European.
The U.S.has three leaders of the charging stations market: Charge Point, Blink and AeroVironment. Tesla can be taken separately - its own audience and its supercharged standards are designed for electric vehicles only from this manufacturer (although Tesla has stated that it is a soft limit that can be withdrawn at any time by the company's decision).
All these manufacturers have entered the market with the start of sales of the most popular electric Nissan Leaf in 2010 or even earlier - in 2008, when a government program subsidizing electric cars has been launched. It had set a tax credit for hybrid electric, which will be in effect until such time as 250,000 such cars are sold each year. These benefits also affected the infrastructure - the payment for the installation of public charging station reaches 50%, but not more than 25 000 dollars.
That's how the United States built one of the biggest infrastructural networks for electric cars in the world - 30.868 chargers excluding domestic are there in 2016. According to US-density infrastructure can be compared with Japan (although this country is rather an innovation laboratory, I will not consider the Japanese infrastructure network).
And this despite the fact that for most Americans electric car is the second car in the family, and they often charge the power cord in their private homes. Incidentally, there is a study that one-third of those who ride on the electric charge it with a maximum of three places: at home, in the office and around the supermarket. This influences the choice between providers. The government has provided a cool soil and has enabled the business to grow, and then joined the competition.
China has developed a state program to establish 1 million charging ports by 2020. Thus, the U.S. approach means support for businesses, in China it is a state program.
How can the market respondto it? The fourth quarter of 2015 proved to be a turning point. China has become the №1market of electric vehicles. Due to the fact that the Chinese give incentives to companies that sell electric cars in the company Black Friday Elon Musk launched for the Chinese market expanded offer - Tesla Model S was sold for $ 12,000 less than American option. This suggests that the U.S. manufacturer is betting on China.
Mix of models works in Europe. On the one hand, the German government expects 1 million cars with an electric motor in the country by 2020, on the other hand, Norway, which since the beginning of the 90th stimulates citizens to switch to clean transport - the abolition of import duty, the abolition of VAT, road charges. Europeans are developing strategies, like the Chinese, and stimulate the electric market complex. Including the development of infrastructure.
Let us take, for example, Estonia: its charging infrastructure is the most successful project. Within the framework of the state program network of fast charging stations across the country was established, it provided the owners of electric cars with mobility and comfort in movement.
In Europe, the business makes proposals for the development of infrastructure. While we do not see there is a global player, but it works for a variety of in-line providers. The most advanced and intuitive (in terms of service) is Dutch company Fastned, built the fifty-speed charging systems in the Netherlands is aimed at all of Europe.
If we talk about the service and access to the charging station, it is possible to give an example of Norway. Traveling around the country, we face with the fact that you need to navigate the various local options in order to use the charges. They do not have a common approach, but operate local initiatives. In Oslo, for example, parking and charge are free for the residents of this city. We have not figured out how to use the service in other cities, but by taking a car to rent in Oslo, in addition we received a key that opens a local charging stations. Speed charging is paid, and municipal is free, but they charge more. And the official dealers of electric cars such as Nissan, are allowed to charge their cars at stations for free.
With the modern development of battery technology and electric car with the average statistical power reserve of 300+ km, the user will be enough to recharge low-power stations of the city. Over 16 hours of downtime a car (8 hours + the same amount of rest), you can safely gain "full tank", being charged from a conventional network.
Urban infrastructure is needed near the office buildings and shopping centers, partly in the municipal parking lots. But in residential areas it would be good to establish inexpensive station and charging low power, 3 kW is sufficient. In addition, the electric charge it at night, not only makes it possible to 'refuel' cars for pennies at a favorable rate, but also solves the problem of underloaded our network at night.
But to experience the electric boom in the coming years, in full, on Ukrainian roads should appear exactly high-speed charging. Otherwise electric vehicle will be exclusively "city car". Charging systems, including the less powerful stations must stand every 50, or even 30-40 km. When a trip to Lviv or Odesa on mass electric car ceases to be extreme, it will become Ukrainian family auto №1.
In Europe, and it is a business initiative in Ukraine largely affect the increase in the number of electric cars on the roads. Although most likely need a mix of the three initiatives. First, municipal charging stations - the crowded metropolises should develop its own program to reduce air pollution. If you create 5% of parking spaces equipped with charging, then in 5 years we will have more than 10% of cars with an electric motor. Second, the good message of the business of the government to the effect that the owners of commercial premises will be able to get extra power for installing the charging station, or at least get a simple parking spaces equipment station procedure at their own expense without unnecessary bureaucratic nuances, if it is not provided by the municipal program (which, of course, can not take into account the total). And thirdly, the establishment of corridors supercharger on the tracks - where we need good speed charging stations. For the HoReCa businesses, along the tracks, installation of high-speed station can be a real project with a payback period due to increased turnover from the core business.
European entrepreneurs have strategically considered installing high-speed station. Most likely, this will be done by our businessmen. Electric vehicle market in Europe is growing, and 3-5 years tens of thousands of electric vehicles with mileage will come to Ukraine. This prospect is already a stimulus for our manufacturer of charging stations and business in general. Ecosystem of electric vehicles in our country is still emerging. But it would be good now to think about the readiness of Kyiv Podil or old Odesa to meet these changes. And, of course, to think separately about public transport.
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