In Ukraine, Natalia Yaresko and Aivaras Abromavicius are called technocrats
Ukrainian political lexicon was enriched by a new word - "technocrats". Now it is used not less than the notorious "reform." About technocrats we talk on the sidelines of Parliament, on television, and even on the streets. But there is a reason to believe that, as often happens, "heard a bell, but do not know where it is," or, in other words, heard a new buzzword, but in fact has not yet figured out its meaning. Do not worry, we will help you.
The origins of the theory
What is technocracy? This is a Greek word τεχνοκρατία, consisting of two components - τέχνη, "skill", and κράτος, "power." That is the power of the masters. Scientifically, the term can be defined as the principle of building a society in which power belongs to the scientific and technical experts. Technocracy is very close to the meritocracy, according to which leadership positions should take the most capable people, regardless of their social background and financial prosperity. Both concepts involve the establishment of free competition, to the gifted, talented people had a chance to take a high social position. Such a model of social justice.
The philosophical and political thought technocratic tradition has a long history. Clearly, the idea of a modern society, knowledge-managed carriers, was first mentioned by Plato. In his work "The State" he defends the thesis that the state must be managed by the carriers of knowledge - class of philosophers. In the XVII century the idea of the use of scientific knowledge for the management of society was developed in the writings of Francis Bacon and Tommaso Campanella. However, all this was just a hint of technocratic ideas, which appeared only at a certain stage of social development. The first holistic concept of the impact of science, industry and technical experts on the socio-political development was created by Henri Saint-Simon. In the works of Saint-Simon there are two major components of all later technocratic concepts: community management on scientific principles and the leading political role of the scientific and technical experts. Saint-Simon was rightly called the forerunner of technocracy and the first of its ideologist.
To speak of technocracy, first of all a fairly numerous layers of scientific and technical experts was needed. And it was only in the second half of the XIX century, with the industrial revolution in the advanced countries, the mass use of machines in production, and then in other areas. Initially technocracy was a response to the challenge facing the engineers from the beginning of the XX century, when under the leadership of developing capitalism plants often in pursuit of profit hindered scientific progress.
Technocracy in politics
However, in the 1920s, the rapid development of science and technology, greatly improving production, changed the social fabric. Technical progress was inextricably linked with the use and implementation of scientific and technological developments in the life of mankind. It is clear that this process did not go unnoticed by philosophers of the time. The main provision of the technocratic concept of a society was technological determinism. It assumed a critical role of engineering and technology in the development of socio-economic structures. In the works of Veblen, this was the implementation of the doctrine according to which the decisive role belonged not only in economic development, but also decision-making policy should belong to the art. Thorstein Veblen described his views in a social utopia "The Engineers and the Price System" (1921) and other works. In 1941, American sociologist Bernheim in his book "The Managerial Revolution," referring to the "government of experts", put forward the idea that the technocracy in the face of political management has become a reality in a number of countries and that under the influence of "technological revolution" capitalism gave way not to socialism, but "managerial society".
Technocratic social order is characterized by the fact that the income of production and distribution process is under the control of society and delegated to the most qualified specialists. Economy of the technocratic society has a non-market character. The social structure of a society is not based on property relations, but on the knowledge and qualifications.
On this basis, the idea of a technocratic government is the government experts that effectively perform the administrative tasks. The technocratic system, in which the economy is governed by economists, social policy is governed by political scientists, the health system is operated by medical professionals, other sectors - relevant specialists, who work and share knowledge together, coordinated by specialists-managers, the performance of each is maximized as much as possible.
Technocracy can also use the control system, in which the laws are enforced by designing systems so that they cannot be broken. For example, to prevent people from traveling by tram without paying for travel, car doors can be designed in such a way that the payment was needed to open the door. The same idea can be applied on a much larger scale, with automated social supervision, intelligent systems that automatically control or restrict the activities of people in order to prevent illegal activities.
This principle has never been implemented in the ideal form at the level of the particular state.